Healthcare

The flight-based disease-network of bats
70% of the world’s 1,240 bat species are insectivores. Every night, these bats fly out over a wide area and eat insects that often have fresh mammal blood on them. Then every day, the bats come home to the same crowded huddle and share the diseases they picked up.

Some days later most of the bats in the colony go out infected, across the bat colony’s territory. Then some bats get grabbed and eaten while they are on the ground by cats, foxes, raccoons, and skunks.  These are the four animals (all nocturnal meat eaters) that are most likely to have Rabies in the US. The bats are apparently often able to bite back, and pass rabies on to their predators. 

So one bat eats one bloody insect—then some days later, all the bats in the huddle go out infected across the whole bat territory. And this can be an area over 100-km in radius — because this is how far bats sometimes range. It is a huge area of over 31,000 sq. km.

But it doesn’t stop there, because bat territories overlap.  So on top of rapidly dispersing diseases in their own territory, bats also help diseases to hop between territories. And this occurs at a speed that approach 100-km divided by the disease’s incubation period. So, huddling bats create a flight-based network for greatly accelerating the spread of mammalian blood and respiratory diseases. 

Here above are two illustrations of “leap networks”, the blue lines, the “local links” schematically represents the way blood diseases would spread without bats.  The green lines, the “leap links” schematically represent how flying bats help diseases rapidly leap ahead to new areas. Bats are notably unique in this leap network role for mammal diseases.  

Why bats are vector #1 for mammalian diseases
Canine packs contact lots of animal blood, but how many individuals are there in a wolf pack vs. a cave bat colony of 20-million bats like in the Bracken Cave?  And how much territory does a wolf pack’s daily swath/path touch? NPS.gov says that wolves roam around 30km/day. So the wolves cover maybe 30 square km/day vs. a bat colony with a 100-km radius, and an area of 31,400-km. This is over 1,000x larger.  What about a rat colony? With rats, there are lots of individuals, but the territory is supposedly 100-m in radius.  And while birds do cover a large territory, they don’t normally live in great rookeries. And when they do, they practice more “social distancing” than bats.  And besides, most importantly perhaps, birds have substantially different metabolisms. Therefore birds don’t work well as a vector between mammals. 

So for zoonotic diseases jumping between mammas: bats (the only flying mammals) seem to be responsible for nearly all of it.  And particularly, bats that huddle closely in great numbers — because these have the greatest network effect in spreading and breeding diseases.  
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NIH list of 200 diseases carried by bats
If you scroll down the list, you will find: Hantavirus, MERS, SARS, COVID Marburg, Ebola, West Nile, Yellow fever, Hepatitis B and C, Herpesvirus, Cytomegalovirus, Influenza virus A, Papillomavirus, Rubulavirus, Mumps, Pneumovirus, Rabies, chikungunya virus, and all 4 coronavirus common cold viruses.  Link

Rubella from bats
Link

Two Pox viruses detected in bats
Link

Discover magazine article
“Bats are the source of more dangerous viruses than any other mammal.  …Ebola, SARS, Marburg, Nipah and more have been traced to the world’s only mammal capable of sustained flight…  bats harbor a significantly higher proportion of zoonotic viruses than all other mammalian orders”  Link

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Due to the demands of flying,
bats have high metabolisms and
are relatively immune to disease

NIH Website
“a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile [fever] response in other mammals.” Link

Bat body temperature in flight 
get up to 108°F (42.1°C) Link

“During flight, bats rev up their metabolic rate 15 times to 16 times higher than non-flying bats. That raises their body temperature to between 100 degrees and nearly 106 degrees Fahrenheit, the equivalent of a pretty high fever in humans.”  Link

Bats run a fever of up to 108°F
on-and-off all day
The animals that operate the mammalian disease spreading network run fevers of up to 42.1°C on-and-off all day long, every day, when not hibernating. 

Fast bat metabolisms
Due to the energy needs of flight, bat metabolisms are already be running fast. So from the start, bats were able to “outrun” most pathogens. So from the start, most diseases did not affect the high metabolism bats as much as slower metabolism terrestrial animals like us.

Why bats huddle
It is widely thought that bats huddle to conserve heat. But why then do bats huddle in so many tropical places? Why is it normal for bats to huddle in shallow tropical caves if bats huddle to conserve heat? 

Apparently, there is another reason to huddle. And it seems to be that the bats benefit from sharing the diseases that protect them. These are diseases that help bats to eliminate bat predators and competitors.  And because these diseases were beneficial to the bats, the bats evolved to huddle close to better spread these protective diseases.

Rabies: It’s got what bats need
Why is Rabies is always deadly?  Isn’t this what bats need to protect them from from the animals that eat them and that compete with them. You see, the diseases that protect bats from predators and competitors are beneficial to the bats. And the more virulent these diseases are, the more beneficial they are to the bats. 

So the normal course of disease evolution is to attenuate — in order to spread faster among a population.  But for predator diseases, the process works in reverse,   because the diseases are not for their host, but for their host’s enemies.

So here we arrive at the giant huddling bat networks of up to 20-million bats. And we realize that these are actually functioning “backwards” by evolving diseases towards virulence. And there is simply no other mammalian network anywhere near the scale. So huddling bats appear to be the main source of counter-attenuation in mammal diseases. 

Bats giving diseases back
Which bats will never bite another animal even when it is dying of hunger? What if the bat is attacked? Which bat species never bite back even if attacked?  And if the bat has Rabies, what happens to the animal that eat the bat, and gets bitten back by the rabid bat?  What happens to the animal that the bat sneezes next to, due to its lingering coronavirus “cold”?

Stressed vampire bats bite each other
Here is a study where a reduction in food caused a population of vampire bats to all bite each other. In fact, they bit each other so much that they lost most of their hair from their heads and shoulders. The inference is that when vampire bats get hungry, they stop merely carrying blood infections themselves. Instead, they seem to all bite each other and pool whatever infections have arisen from their stress response. The multi-biting evolved to assure that the diseases are spread well.

The right way to find bat diseases
Capture some bats from a cave. Then keep them caged close together, feeding them food laced with immunosuppressants for a couple days, and no food for the next day, thus stressing the bats. Then look for diseases.

Bats with their small guts and high metabolisms start dying after 2-days if they don’t eat. So after day 1, they get quiet desperately hungry. And at the same time, their immune system is summoning “the demons”, the pathogens. And it is perhaps rather like the Hulk or Venom of myth.

Also, nere we reflect on the boldness of some city rodents when they are desperately hungry. So there must commonly be an element of aggressiveness and boldness, a randomness to bat feeding at times. And this probably helps spread disease, as well as bring out the bat diseases. Also a randomness with regard to bites that is curiously similar to what we see in rabid animals, and perhaps some forms of mental illness, hyper-tension, and high blood pressure.

One way famine causes plague
In many famines, the humans eat most of the livestock and wild animals. This causes the local blood eating bats to go hungry, and also for their infections to re-surface due to the hunger stress. Then the bats bite each other and pool and share their diseases.  Also, because the bats are crazed with hunger, they are much more fearless and irregular with their biting.  And with most of the animals are gone, the remaining humans get bitten more by the bats, which are also more virulent due to the pooling of diseases. And all this is on top of the reduced immune response of malnourished people.

Pathogens just keep knocking on all doors
And the bats are flying them around

All pathogens are constantly knocking on the door of all the animals they contact. The more doors they knock on, the more likely it is that they eventually evolve a new and better genetic disguise that gets them in.  

The pathogens have their own agenda
After enough inter-species introductions, the pathogens eventually evolve to spread among the new species. Then once they start spreading, they invariably start re-attenuating so as to spread better in their new host species. 

The counter-attenuation, re-attenuation cycle
The diseases become more virulent in bats and they become less virulent when they are out among the other mammals. This repeated cycle appears to be the main source of evolution in mammalian pathogens.

Bat, or pangolin, or civet cat, or ???
If a disease exists in several species including bats, the bats are probably the main interspecies vector — the hub vector. Bats after all, are quite adapted for that role due their huddling and nightly contact with blood.

Ask the right question about bats and disease transmission
It isn’t only whether we can isolate a disease from among a bat population. We should also try to put a ravenously hungry non-infected bat in with a variety of other ravenously hungry infected animals for a day. Then we put the (again hungry) bat in with other not-infected hungry animals for another day to see if those animals become infected. Which diseases can bats transmit?
Can bats transmit pox diseases? HIV? Hepatitis? Polio? Malaria?

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How to stop any insect-borne epidemic
In Asia, people have consumed Chrysanthemum for over 3,500-years, so it appears to be relatively safe. Chrysanthemum contains natural pyrethroids, a powerful insect neurotoxin. And because insects have different organs and metabolisms, what can be “nerve gas” to insects is relatively harmless to vertebrates.

So if people take a small and mostly harmless amount of Chrysanthemum flower, their blood can be made deadly to the insects biting them. And if all of the community (including the animals) takes this natural insecticide, it will stop the mosquito epidemic in one mosquito life cycle (4-5 weeks). 

Today millions of people take micro-doses of deadly botulism toxin (botox) for vanity.  Perhaps our infectious disease arsenal should also include doses of insect poison to stop raging insect-borne epidemics.  

The pesticides are much less deadly than the insect diseases
Insect-born diseases kill and sicken huge numbers of people. Malaria alone kills 400,000 people a year. On the other hand, where is the agricultural-worker pesticide syndrome? Where are even a few thousand deaths a year from people applying agricultural pesticides? The insect diseases are at times a vastly greater health risk than the pesticides. 

Get blood — mate — find water — lay eggs
Where mosquitos have access to both blood and water, they become intolerable. Denying them water to lay their eggs completely halts their reproduction in many dryer places. However, there are still wetter places that this will not work.  In these places, we can use chrysanthemum extract or a synthetic pyrethroid to interfere with the mosquito’s ability to survive its meals and reproduce. This in addition to flooding the environment with sterile male mosquitos, insecticide-impregnated screen fences, and other anti mosquito methods.

Why are insect-borne epidemics getting worse?
• Why are cases increasing?
• Why are territories are expanding?
Aside from global warming, nobody has a good reason for why this is happening. Here’s a reason:  It is due to the natural food movement, and how now farmers are: 1/ Using insecticides that break down quickly, before people can eat them. 
2/ Using less insecticide because it is the “right” thing to do.
So today we all have lower levels of insecticide residue in our blood than in recent decades. Now more of the insects biting us are living to lay more infected eggs. 

Pesticide residue as protector
Improved drainage and closed sewers gets all the credit for totally protecting the rich nations from insect-born diseases. But even the famously clean and organized city-state of Singapore has many places that have mosquitos. So how do we get total protection from partial mosquito control? 

Maybe we don’t. Maybe it is not improved sanitation that has protected the modern world from mosquito disease. Maybe it is the pesticide residue in our blood protecting us.  

And maybe the simplest thing world government can do to keep Malaria from killing 400,000 people a year is to distribute subsidized pesticides in the worst malarial regions, so everyone naturally has pesticides in their blood. Or maybe we give measured microgram doses by pill if everyone will take them.

An experiment
Get 100 volunteers. For a weeks, expose them as follows:
1/ Give 25 of them fresh vegetables that were normally sprayed in the fields with the old pesticides. 
2/ Give another 25 of them fresh vegetables that were normally sprayed in the fields with new pesticides. 
3/ Give 25 of them a cup of chrysanthemum tea daily.
4/ Give 25 of them nothing as control group.
At the end of 7-days, expose all 100 to three hungry mosquitoes each. Take the visibly full mosquitoes and house them in their own individual jars, with water for laying eggs.  Which mosquitos die before they can lay viable eggs? How much chrysanthemum and other pesticides are needed to kill 99% of the mosquitoes?

Why not take bug poison
… If it is beneficial?
If we can harmlessly have this insecticide in our blood for a couple months, and the alternative is to suffer a multi-year insect-vectored plague, why not drink a little relatively harmless bug poison? At least we should have the tool in our arsenal for when people are dying in great numbers from one of the many insect borne diseases.

Where to set safe pesticide residue levels
It is where 100% the mosquitos biting people die. Any less than that and we lose protection from blood sucking insects. We also breed insecticide resistance. Any more than this and we expose ourselves to unnecessary chemicals. 

Pesticides can accumulate in higher life forms
Sure they can, and this is definitely a problem for poorly  chosen pesticides with a narrow range between effective dose in the insects, and a dangerous dose in mammals. But for well chosen pesticides with a wide range between the effective dose in the insects and the dangerous dose in mammals — and pesticides that don’t build up — this should not be a problem. 

Pesticides should be seen like drugs
With drugs, there are lots of chemicals that are actually rather harmful, for example: (chemotherapy for cancer, and toxic antibiotics for MRSA). We take these powerful and sometimes deadly chemicals because experience shows that they are less harmful than the thing killing us. The same mental model should be used for insecticides — especially the insecticides that protect us from the diseases of blood sucking insects that kill over 400,000 people every year. 

Many people think: “The less insecticide the better”. Yet there is no widespread syndrome associated with contact with pesticide residue. This in sharp contrast to the great well documented harm that insect borne pathogens bring us, for example: (Malaria, Dengue, Lyme, Zika, Bubonic plague). 

Where do the mosquitos die after biting people?
It is real a simple experiment. All you need are people willing to get bitten and some mason jars with nail holes in their lids. What percent of the people kill the mosquitoes biting them in the various parts of the world?

Ancient Greek chrys•anthemum = golden•flower

Pesticides in wild animals
Is it such a bad thing that we expose the world’s animals to trace amounts of these relatively harmless chemicals that help prevent illness from the blood sucking insects that so often afflict them? Large numbers of grazing animals are already eating chrysanthemum. What is the harm if we feed them a bit more of this because it kills mosquitos? 

The animals around us
We might also put the Chrysanthemum or another less harmful insecticide in “summer” pet food, deer corn, squirrel bait, and bird seed. We might also have it in watering troughs near our communities, so wild animals consume it. This will reduce mosquitoes, ticks fleas and lice. Near our cities, we might also drone-disperse fresh “wet” super-aromatic animal pellets that most animals find irresistibly delicious and can smell from some distance away.  These have some Chrysanthemum, or maybe some other pesticides and anti-parasite drugs. Thus all the animals that eat these kill all the fleas, ticks and mosquitos that bite them. We imagine a ring of treated animals (wild and domesticated) around each community.  Thus the community can substantially keep new mosquitoes out with this ring of animals protecting it. 

Blood-insect energy efficiency
What happens to tick populations when it becomes 5x less likely that the ticks will be able to reproduce due to insecticide in the blood they are consuming? Certainly cutting reproductive efficiency by 5-fold will cause ticks to die out entirely in many areas.

The salivary glands of blood insects
Malaria migrates to the salivary glands of mosquitoes. 
We should look hard for other nasty pathogens here, in the salivary glands of the various blood sucking insects.  

Chrysanthemum is a fruit
The flower is essentially a drug fruit like marijuana, coffee, and opium.  And like with these other plants, the animal-luring-fruit is not sweet and bio-energy expensive for the plant to produce. Instead, the plant offers an energy “cheap” chemical cocktail to benefit the migratory herbivores that disperse the plant’s seeds.  Also, Chrysanthemum may have other similar drugs like how Marijuana has THC and CBD, among other drugs.

Where to look for undiscovered plant drugs
1/ With marijuana, we see how evolution has caused a plants to evolve several animal drugs: THC, CBD and CBN among others. 
2/ With tobacco, we see largely the same thing, although the tobacco family of drugs mostly seem to be poisons that have all adapted to habituate and then kill tobacco symbiots for their fertilizer value
3/ The same evolutionary pressures and paths that cause a plant to evolve one drug often cause the evolution of other similar drugs — as well as opposite or cancelling drugs sometimes.
4/ The best place to look for new drugs may not be deep in the Amazon jungle, but recessed in the genomes of plants that already produce other drugs. 
5/ There might be a good opioid-addiction drug in the poppy genome, as a sort of cancelling drug to the main opioid drug of the poppy.

Pyrethroid corn
Given the number of carcinogens (malignant drugs) that have evolved in tobacco, it is hard to believe that anyone would be so dumb as to use ANY part of the tobacco genome in food plants. Yet it was widely done.  What about the Chrysanthemum genome? That appears to be both more effective against insects and less toxic. What if we developed corn that had very low levels of pyrethroids in its leaves and husks, and perhaps none its seeds?  How do the bugs get in to the seeds?

It works on all insect born disease
Ingesting small amounts of insecticide works on all insect-borne diseases like Malaria, Yellow Fever, Dengue, Zika, Bubonic Plague, Lyme, etc.

If Malarial people take chrysanthemum… 
It kills all the mosquitoes that bite them and then nobody gets Malaria from them.

Is Chrysanthemum safe?
Here we have a plant that has this symbiotic trick for the animals that eat it. It knocks down the herd following bugs when the herds eat it. Then these herds prosper and the Chrysanthemum develops herds of seed dispersing symbiots to spread its seeds. 

Certainly Chrysanthemum started out being safer than unchecked outdoor bugs in a marshy summer. But subsequently it should have evolved to be both deadlier to insects and safer to the plant’s mammal symbiots. And especially the latter. Chrysanthemum has been optimized and re-optimized for countless migratory mammal species over many millions of years. So it would not be surprising if Chrysanthemum had one of the greatest differences between insect toxicity and mammal harmlessness of all the 1,000+ pyrethroids.

Lyme disease insecticide prophylaxis 
Lyme disease can’t burden its baby tick host very much, so it exists in utterly tiny quantities in the tick’s gut. Then   it takes some days for the Lyme disease to grow a load in the tick’s gut, and to migrate to the tick’s salivary glands.  If the new host’s blood is poisonous to the tick, and kills the tick in a day or two, then there will be no Lyme disease transmission. What about the other tick-born diseases? 

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Pathogens that surf species
Infected host populations do die out, so pathogens that can move between species have a big advantage.

Inter-species infections = the new world
The pathogen’s prime survival imperative is of course to spread and infect as many individuals in as many species as possible. And every time a new species is infected, it is a hugely important event for the pathogen, an event akin to the human discovery of new continents. Such an event substantially enlarges the pathogen’s breeding network, and exponentially increases the pathogen’s evolutionary speed and competitiveness. 

Species surfing pathogens
It seems that there are pathogens that specialize in being versatile and being able to jump from one species to another. That is their magic trick, and that is what has made them successful.  Also, it would appear that most of  these diseases (when mammalian) are heavily dependent on huddling bats to get between species.

Diversification—Why pathogens kill 
In general, pathogens don’t spread as well when they kill their hosts. A host walking around normally spreads/disperses the pathogen much better than a stationary dead animal.  However, a diversified strategy is also sometimes beneficial in small amounts. This is apparently why many diseases kill a sliver fraction of the individuals they infect. If say 1% of infections die and are consumed by carnivores, scavengers, and then insectivores eating blood-filled corpse-insects — Then these blood eating mammals will frequently carry the pathogen off to a fresh new species to infect. So pathogens do often benefit from killing a sliver fraction of their host species.

Why zoonotic diseases kill
When pathogen kill, it is not normally to help the pathogen spread among the same species. Attenuation is normally how a pathogen spreads among the same species. Instead, pathogens kill to spread to other species — mostly via the carnivores, scavengers, and insectivores that consume the blood of the dead host. So the killing typically drives the zoonotic jumps that are key to the long term survival of the pathogen. This is also why zoonotic diseases are more likely to be deadly.

Recessive genes
The genomes of pathogens (like every other living thing) are always trying out their ancient and once useful tricks that have become recessive and occasionally expressed. So when pathogens jump to a new species, or infect a new population — over time they tend to try out all the old and once successful traits that have evolved to become recessive variations. And most pathogens have a whole basket of these recessive traits to try out occasionally… because occasionally expressing these tends to lead to success in a new evolutionary niche.

One old favorite trick of pathogens is to kill a few individuals in one of the many old and proven ways that have proven to be occasionally beneficial to the survival of the pathogen. This creates a feast for carnivores, scavengers, and insectivores eating blood filled corpse-insects from the new host.  And if this killing works better than not killing, the pathogen individuals with the killing trait become more of the species, the pathogen’s species.

Symbiots vs. parasites
When the pathogen graduates from parasite to symbiot, it can make its host produce vastly more copies of itself. In fact, the pathogen can turn its host-now-symbiot into a pathogen shedding and spreading/dispersing factory in direct proportion to the benefit that the pathogen gives to its host and symbiot. And this might boost reproductive output for the pathogen by several orders of magnitude.  So symbiosis is another sort of a Holy Grail thing for parasites — perhaps even greater than jumping to a new species.

Komodo dragons (the big lizards of Indonesia) have a pathogen in their saliva that is always fatal if it enters the blood. This apparently helps the big slow low-metabolism reptile to prey on fast moving mammals. 

Now what if a pathogen killed it’s true host’s predators (instead of its prey) and thus helped its true host to survive? Wouldn’t this pathogen tend to evolve towards being fatal for those predators?  

So for secondary hosts that are the predators, or competitors of a primary host, the natural pressure towards attenuation can work backwards. And here is the main reason why nature evolves diseases that kill. This sort of relationship favors strains that are super-virulent to the other species — when this helps the pathogen’s true host to survive. So Bubonic plague was selected for virulence because it helped its true host (the marmots) to survive predators. And the same with Rabies, Ebola, etc.

Counter-attenuated predator diseases
Also call them CAP diseases

Always fatal blood diseases
Rabies, Ebola, Hepatitis, and HIV all eventually kill their hosts, and all attenuation only delays death.

Komodo dragon saliva pathogen
Maybe we should survey the salivary glands of the entire animal kingdom for pathogens. I bet we find salivary gland pathogen DNA in many forms of cancer.

Our salivary “symbiots”
According to Scientific American, Fuso•bacterium nucleatum, lives “harmlessly” in the gums of humans until sometimes it seems to have a role in helping some cancers to become metastatic. So this pathogen does two things that make it look like an attenuated CAP disease: A/ it lives in the mouth, and B/ it kills.

Predator diseases migrate to the biting teeth
Like with Rabies, many predator diseases tend to “migrate” to the salivary glands, mouth, and periodontal area. Basically they have evolved to go where they are most likely to be dispersed properly.

Where to find CAP disease
Many seem to migrate to the salivary glands where they can infect new hosts with minimal burden to their current host.

Disease migration
Diseases often said to migrate here or there in the body. What is actually going on is that the body either can’t get at that place (for example brain tissue), or the body is allowing the disease in that place (for example symbiotic microorganisms like Komodo dragon saliva has). Where we see pathogens in the nervous system we presume that they got in. When we see pathogens in the mouth, we presume they were let in as symbiots.

Migration to the salivary glands
More accurately, the pathogen goes everywhere and the immune system kills it… everywhere except the one place it helps the host to survive. The bat lines that kept the protective pathogen infection in their mouths tended to thrive more than those that did not.

Rabies is someone’s symbiot
That Rabies is spread via bites strongly suggests that it is somebody’s symbiot. Who is that? Which animal benefits most from rabies? Maybe it bears repeating: Rabies — It’s got what what bats need

A very cheap compass
Which bats are most immune to rabies? Which bats are most immune to the other various diseases that plague people? Collect some of each. Infect a couple. Lock them up for a time. What percent of bats get infected after 30 days? This is such an easy compass and it gives hard numbers and a topography that points right to the most problematic species. And if we did this with all the orders/families of animals, coming up with an X-in-1-million transmission coefficient for every disease. If we did that, we could make informed decisions.

The pathogen-cancer DNA search-engine project
We sequence all the diseases and symbiots we can. Then we sequence all the various sorts of cancer, vascular, and Alzheimer’s tissue and look for DNA matches. 

Rabies
Rabies spread via saliva and blood. It also apparently spreads best when the host animal is walking around infected and “mad” for a while. First this is with no symptom, letting the animal do as usual for some time.  Then after a while, rabies typically causes the host animal to change its behavior and go “mad” and act with bizarre aggressive, or fear. This way the host animal bites lots of random animals, and infects man different animals which might be either of the same species or another species. 

Then, all these infected animals eventually die. In cats, this can be up to a year. Then the host become food for predators, scavengers, and corpse insectivores. And any one of these animals might bring the disease back to its kind and infect many of them. So there are clearly some diseases like Rabies & Ebola that don’t attenuate like “normal” because this impairs how well they spread as predator and blood diseases.

Why most diseases hardly ever kill
Dogs can follow individual people and prey animals by the faint residual smell they leave in the surroundings. Dogs can also sniff out particular diseases. They can also discern the healthy from the sick, and the sick from the dying. So dogs can probably also remember the smell of a pathogen on an animal that died of an infection. And after exposure to this particular smell, the dogs might carefully avoid this smell in the future. And doubtless many animals are a bit like this. This seems to be why so many diseases hardly ever kill. If many animals come across dead bodies, then they start to avoid living animals that smell anything like that way. Then the pathogen can’t spread.

Fruit bat also carry deadly diseases
1/ Marberg virus has been isolated in fruit bats.
2/ Nipah virus is spread when fruit bats lick and urinate on date palm sap. Humans become infected when they consume the raw infected date palm sap. Nipah kills 70% of its victims. So here with Nipah virus is an example of a CAP disease carried by fruit bats. 

Why kill the old pt. 1?
Maybe it is not simply that the old are weaker and die easier. Maybe it is more that the old have more varied smells to begin with. Maybe pathogens have been conditioned by their environment to kill the old because it is harder to discern the smell of the pathogen. Thus the pathogen can kill without causing animals to avoid its smell. 

Why kill the old pt. 2?
1/ Old animals have already reproduced, and their death does not matter as much from the standpoint of a parasite not-burdening its hosts.  
2/ Killing the old animals may be symbiotic, especially if they are old and males. This appears to be part of why males die 18.6% younger than females in many mammals, and 8% younger in humans. 

Fusobacterium nucleatum and cancer
This “harmless” mouth bacteria sometimes becomes part of tumor cells in the colon.  Perhaps when it kills in this way, other animals can’t fix on the infection’s smell. In fact, the prey animal probably smells like it died of cancer and is thus perfectly safe to eat. So the predator/scavenger eats and becomes infected, instead of avoiding the infected meal. 

Pathogens that cause cancer
1/ HIV
2/ Human Papilloma virus
3/ Helicobacter pylori
4/ Hepatitis B
5/ Hepatitis C
6/ HTLV-1 (Human T-lymphotropic virus-1)
7/ Human Herpes virus-8
8/ Merkel cell Polyoma virus
9/ Simian virus-40
10/ Chlamydia Trachomatis
11/ Epstein Bar Virus.
12/ Fusobacterium nucleatum
Here we see 12 examples of CAP diseases that have attenuated to the point that it causes a fatal type of cancer later in life.

How HIV kills by stealth
1/ That HIV kills by cancer is an olfactory cloaking device.
2/ That it kills in so many different ways make it is harder to detect by smell. 
3/  HIV is a very old and very highly evolved pathogen that has evolved many ways to do the same thing. Why does it need so many ways to kill? So it can’t be easily identified by smell.

HIV looks like an attenuated CAP disease 
HIV is always fatal, and it is most effectively transmitted by the blood. So it looks like it started as a CAP disease, and then evolved to be a primate mounting disease like SIV.  Both appear to be symbiots that helped eliminate the non-reproductive males (low-status mounted ape males), so there could be more reproductive females given fixed food inputs.

Here we need some statistics. Let’s graph the number of offspring for each male chimp/ bonobo and relate it to the number of times that male was mounted by another male of its species. The mounted males should not be producing many offspring. And this is the niche that SIV and HIV exploit—getting rid of the “inferior” mounted ape males that don’t produce many children anyway.

Hissing animals
Animals hiss, spit and bark partly because it causes infected “saliva” droplets to go airborne. This helps infect predators with whatever infections the prey animal has — like say a CAP diseases perhaps.  Thus hissing individuals survive better and become more and more of the species. 

At first, animals evolved to hiss because the predators that didn’t get frightened-off, tended to get sick and die out. Then some predators evolved to fear hissing. Then other animals started hissing because it scared predators away. Now it seems to be a mix of everything.

Bat cave colds
All the coughing and sneezing and nasal itching, the discomfort, the snot, and the lung mucus. All of it helps the infected bats spread the disease better in their cave huddles. And this is what most of the terrible feeling of being sick evolved for — to help pathogens spread better in a bat cave. 

Sicker when you go to bed
This is another thing that comes from the bat cave. This gave the bats a higher viral load when they huddled to sleep together. 

Why do predators 
have such strong immune systems?
1/ This is needed to deal with the diseases they catch from their raw meat diet.
2/ The hard part of being a meat eater is not only catching the prey, but also having a strong enough immune system to cope with blood diseases.

People should be more careful about eating

a/ Undercooked meat, particularly jerky
b/  Wild meat, particularly wild varmints.

Russian roulette
Let’s say you could have a pig pen next to your bed.  There are these little fans that take the air from right next to the animal, right at its snout, and pumps the air right above your pillow while you sleep.  This is a completely awful idea right? You are going to catch something… right?  The point I am trying to make is that eating rare meat is probably a greater health risk. 

Species protection
Consider the idea that eating undercooked wild “bush” or varmint meat is dangerous for all mankind.  Banning this practice is not only wise medically, but it also will help save many wild species from hunting.

Bubonic Plague comes from 
Cute squirrels, as well as filthy rats
The Black Death apparently comes from the fleas of marmots, which belong to the squirrel (sciuridae) family. And in the US at least, many primary plague infections come from contact with squirrels. So with plague, we are perhaps wrong to worry mostly about the filthy rats. Instead we should perhaps worry more about the cute little squirrels. We really should do some research about the true proportion.  Knowing this proportion might save a great many lives one day.

Arrival of Black Death map
The arrival of the Black Death was a hugely important thing in its day. There are many mentions of when the plague arrived in the various cities of Europe.  So history has a reasonably clear picture of how the Black Death epidemic marched across Europe in 1347-51.

But the Black Death did not race along rivers and shorelines as we would expect from a rat plague, or a plague spread by trade. No, it spread outward from Italy as we would expect from a front of infected animals. It started in Italy in 1347. It reached Austria, Germany, Scotland, and Ireland by 1349, and Moscow by 1351. 

The disease seems to have spread at about 3km a day from Nice to Portugal and at about roughly the same rate From Venice to Gdansk and then east into Russia. If we consider incubation periods and random movement of the animals, this seems to be too fast for ground animals to spread fleas. Can bats or birds of some sorts carry the right fleas? 

How fast diseases march
1/ Perhaps the “marching diseases” like plague, diseases moving inexplicably fast are vectored by bats.
2/ There is probably a formula where march speed = bat range divided by incubation period.

Why did the rodent get big again?
Rodents are all about being small, low cost, plentiful and expendable. How come some rodent species have abandoned the small and low cost tactic and grown large again? (for example Marmots)… Isn’t this like how on islands, many species grow big when they have no predators? Apparently Marmots are on this virtual island as a species. And they don’t have to worry much about predators. This apparently is due to the bubonic plague they carry, and perhaps other diseases.  How many other rodent species have gotten big again due to their germ weapon(s)?

A boy feeds seemingly fearless marmots

Understanding bubonic plague and fleas
1/ Imagine the big marmot burrow holes and how the fleas and plague help keep the regular-sized rodents and predators out.  In fact, these invaders bring the plague fleas back to their kind. 
2/ When a big juicy marmot is caught by a predator, the fleas and plague help get rid of that species of marmot predator. 

The density of marmot burrows in Kazakhstan

Fearlessness is a symptom of CAP diseases
Apparently marmots come right up to people. Apparently their species has no need to fear other animals. Thus they can infect and cause no harm themselves. And this seems to be another sign of species that harbors a killer disease. Maybe we need to trap and sample the blood of lots of fearless creatures… for what if 1/100,000th of them has a nasty plague.

The strong smell of rodents
This is like the poisonous snakes with the bright coloring. The rodents are shouting: “stay away from our kind”. They are associating their smell with their diseases. They don’t care if predators can detect them more easily. Better all the other animals learn to stay far away from that species of disposable rodent.

Just don’t eat MY kind
It is actually better if the predator is still around eating your competitor species, but not your species.  So perhaps GERD and other upper digestive ailments are the result of a pathogen like Helicobacter pylori that puts predators off eating certain prey animals.

What percent?
1/ What percent of marmots test positive for plague?
2/ Where are the marmots testing positive? Perhaps we eliminate the marmots from this area.

The bark of this tree
Maybe it is more important that the blood of all the various mammals of the world be scanned for infectious diseases. This preventative medicine is perhaps vastly more valuable than the botany of treatments — for we stop the problems at their root.

Plague breeding species
Where is the next super-bug is going to come from? Probably where past super bugs came from. 

Famine and plague
Whatever the connection between hunger and the immune system, famines also cause hungry people to eat many animals they otherwise would never touch.

Non-transmissible between humans
Think about how bird flu has been caught by humans, but does not seem to transmit between humans. There are two possible reasons for this:

A/ The disease (which can already reproduce inside single humans) needs to mutate so that its copies can infect others. 

 –– OR ––

B/ Bird flu is like HIV and Hepatitis-C.  It is hard to transmit. All apparently need blood-to-blood, or ingestion of blood, or inhalation of dry bird feces, or some precise set of conditions to spread. Here we note how “everyone” touches and occasionally eats raw bird flesh, but few people come in direct contact with human blood or flesh. 

HIV viral load chart above

Hepatitis-C
Apparently only 3% of people diagnosed with Hep-C pass it on to their long term sex partners. This might be due to a genetic vulnerability, or maybe it require a co-infection given that 3% number. Or maybe it is due to a short window of time.

The red “Plasma virus load” line in the above graph is for HIV. Now considering that Hep-C swims in the same animal ponds as HIV: Firstly among Humans and Chimps, and also among certain human populations as well. Considering this, maybe we should use the HIV viral load curve as our model.

And maybe with Hep-C, the initial short spike in viral load and infectiousness is only a few days, and these are both many times what they are afterwards during the long tail. Perhaps the 3% number is due to timing and a disease that is only contagious for a short while. Then, after this the disease is seldom passed between people. We should be able to figure out what is happening here through infecting a dying chimp or human volunteer with Hep-C and tracking their viral load. 

We must do it
Blood-to-blood exposure is the touchstone for seeing if inter-species transmission is possible. We need to know all the zoological niches for all blood-to-blood transmission of all diseases. And injecting animals in this way is going to bring an early death to a few old/weak/particularly vulnerable individuals in each species. But we will use this knowledge to bring eternally greater health to both ourselves and to all animals.  

Central Asia Marmots
If these are the main bubonic plague reservoir species:
1/ They might carry other nasty diseases. We should first have multiple teams looking for these diseases for some years before any culling.
2/ We may want to have a few walled marmot reserves and eliminate the marmots from most of their habitat.

Tuberculosis
Here is a counter attenuated predator disease that has its hosts frequently coughing up blood that is little-doubt full of infectious TB germs.  And the half-life of untreated TB patients is about 5-years. Half die every 5-years. So TB is a blood disease, and one that re-attenuated to turn the victims into multi-year blood spitters. And these victims spit up big bloody chunks that smell just like kills, and thus get carefully sniffed. And it is a little blood here and some weeks later, a little blood there.

Did TB come from bats?
Why don’t we feed someone’s TB infected blood to a vampire bat living in a box where there isn’t enough food. How long does it take for the other bats to show exposure to TB? 

And TB looks so much like a typical bat-borne blood illness. Only the blood is getting coughed up and spit everywhere. And one more thing: Early TB probably only a few days or weeks to kill in the same way it does today. 

Gay men’s diseases
Aside from HIV and Hepatitis, which diseases (including late life diseases) are most common among gay men? It should be easy to find these diseases, and catalogue them, and generate statistics so people will know the true risks.

Pathogens don’t normally
evolve towards virulence

Pretty much all pathogens find it hard to spread among modern humans with their medical knowledge and adaptive responses. And the deadlier the pathogen, the more we respond with counter measures. So we should expect that nearly all pathogens, nearly always rapidly attenuate in humans as a result.  Also we should expect that when pathogens “mutate” and become deadlier in humans, it is probably from re-introduction rather than actual mutation. After all, the original zoological sources are the only evolutionary route that is driving evolution “backwards” towards virulence. 

Human epidemics and time
If virulence only evolves in prey species, then the longer the pathogen exists in human hosts, the more it should re-attenuate.

Limited pathogen resources
1/ The pathogen’s resources are typically limited given the demands of blind dispersion. So the pathogens need to focus their efforts and put their offspring where they will be able to reproduce best.
2/ Pathogens infect the blood so predator, scavengers, and insectivore will consume the pathogen in the first place.  
3/ Pathogens also infect the nasal and respiratory tracts, and feces, so the disease will get blown around in the bat cave, and between other social animals like dogs and rats. It is also so hissing animals will pass the infection.

A highly varied appearance… to the immune system
Pathogens are all masters of disguise when it comes to immune systems. After all, aren’t they just burglars sneaking around and re-purposing our bodies… until our immune system can recognize them and eliminate them? 

The pathogen’s objectives
1/ Produce lots of offspring.
2/ Get offspring dispersed right.
3/ Go undetected by current host’s immune system.
4/ Go undetected by new host’s sense of smell.

It isn’t mutation really
Most pathogens are not truly mutating very much. Mostly, they are expressing some old and already well refined recessive traits long in their genomes.

Antibiotic resistance
What happens when bats regularly drink livestock blood with antibiotics in it? Does their 20-million cell disease-breeding-network then breed pathogens that are resistant to the new obstacle in their objective of virulence? Are bats the main source of anti-biotic resistance?

MRSA
1/ Bats are known to carry Staphylococcus.
2/ MRSA is not only a thing of hospitals. It also affects farms among other places.
3/ Does staph sometimes give people sore teeth?

Is it camouflaged?
Evolution frequently causes parasites to camouflage and hide themselves. Think of how hard it is to spot flesh-colored tick blood sacks on a dog’s belly. Symbiots don’t have to camouflage. The rewards of their helpful symbiosis is enough to keep the relationship going by itself. 

Why the pathogen makes us feel bad
Think about the flu. Incapacity from sickness must turn many animals into prey, and scavenger pickings, thus they will tend to infect other animal species. But they don’t stink like they died of the flu. Yet they tend to become prey and scavenger pickings. That is why you have body aches.

Pathogen dispersal trumps all
Just as seeds dispersal is all-critical to plants, infection dispersal is all-critical to pathogens. So we need to realize that infectiousness is the main objective/ benefit to a pathogen. And nothing else really matters in comparison.  Whatever works survives and becomes the species.

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Pigeons
Pigeons fly out over a large area scavenging food and dead animals from our cities. Then they roost together rather like bats. They may not be mammals (like bats) with similar metabolisms, but on the other hand they live much closer to us, and in great numbers. So they spread fewer diseases, but they are still a vector network. For example histoplasmosis fungus is spread by dry dust from both bat and bird droppings. Cryptococcosis and  psittacosis are two other less deadly bird dropping diseases that we know of because they produce immediate symptoms. There may very well be other attenuated bird diseases that only produce problems later in life. If we are going to “drain the swamp” and get rid of the worst disease vectors, urban pigeons should be on the list.

Vermin
Every one of these creatures is known to carry multiple human diseases and should be entirely eliminated from every human community on earth.  There should be no excuses, and it should be an international effort. And again, the risk is not that a few people will die from a zoonotic diseases carried by these animals. The risk is that the next great plague will come from one of these species, from the same places that other recent plagues came from. 
1/ Mosquitos
2/ Ticks
3/ Fleas
4/ Rodents (including squirrels)
5/ Bats
6/ Pigeons

Nobody cried for small pox
Nobody cried when we made smallpox go extinct because it is a “criminal species” in the “society of living things”. Likewise, nobody can ask: “how can you kill those rodents or insects infesting your city?”. It is absurd to give value to the lives of blood sucking insects, rodents and bats. They are all vermin.

Sub-zero parasites?
Do mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas benefit the ecosystem in any way at all? What about bats? I bet we realize that:
1/ The fruit eating bats spit out most seeds in the plants they eat and only spread a limited number of seeds. 
2/ That removing insectivore bats doesn’t increase insect populations by much.
3/ That the disease spreading bats are more of a problem than the insects they eat. 
4/ That we need to bring some cave bats into captivity and seal many wild cave bats up in their caves. 

Criminal species
Species that harm other species, their habitat, or people, and especially if they harm people — these species should be thought of as criminal. Criminal species may be brought into captivity, and made extinct in the wild. This will greatly reduce disease — all disease — including a lot of late life diseases that people take for natural aging.

Stop the varmint hunting
Hunting varmints for food:
1/ Occasionally causes terrible plagues.
2/ Causes much late life disease.
3/ Is bad for species conservation.
4/ Is inefficient and wastes a great deal of time.
5/ Is not a significant source of food.

Eliminate from the wild?
It might greatly benefit mankind and the other mammals if we took some germ-warfare, or plague-carrying species into captivity, and eliminated the rest from the wild:
1/ Vampire bats and certain other types of huddling bats that eat corpse insects for example.
2/ Certain oversized rodents.
3/ Wild pigs.

Places without a certain animal
What late life diseases are less common where there are no bats?  What about where there are no dogs, squirrels, pigeons, pigs? What about people bitten by animals, what late life diseases do they suffer more from?

Monitoring bat populations
There should be a few hundred people around the world each going to the biggest caves, swabbing and taking lab blood and running 15-minute test strips. If we did this, we could:
1/ Find more many more bat diseases.
2/ Cull infected caves.

Staying away from wild animals
There needs to be more public information about this. And people need to understand that the risk is not that one individual will get sick and die, but that a new disease like COVID will be unleashed upon mankind. This is why people should avoid contact with wild animals.

Many animal species mixing at the zoo
Zoos are a terrible idea from an epidemiological standpoint.  And “the world famous San Diego Zoo” is perhaps the worst. This is because the San Diego zoo is right by the airport of a huge tourist attraction city.  And landing in San Diego, you fly right over the beautiful zoo and interesting-looking Balboa Park. (Quite Beautiful and interesting from the air.) So people from all over the world arrive, and many go straight to see the “World famous San Diego Zoo” before doing anything else. Thus, one of the world’s largest animal collections is constantly exposed to fresh diseases from all parts of the world. And many other people visit the zoo on the way out. These people get exposed to the world’s largest animal collection right before heading-out to all parts of the world.

And many people bring their kids, which crawl around and touch everything, and then put their hands in their mouths, or rub their noses, or eyes. The alternative is to put all our zoos far away from big cities, and more spread out or behind glass.

Varmint jerky
This is sold by the roadside in so many places around the world — and few people have any concept of the dangers. There really should be a worldwide campaign about how dangerous it is to eat wild varmint jerky.  We need to explain how it is not enough to dry meat and prevent it from spoiling. There are other pathogens and parasites in the meat that are not killed in the drying process. And again, it’s not just the jerky eater’s health that is at risk. Eating under-cooked jerky puts everyone’s health in danger. So selling under-cooked meat, particularly under-cooked wild and varmint meat should be illegal worldwide. 

Varmints in cages
Varmints in cages are certainly more infectious than dead varmints. The trade in live wild animals for food or pets should be entirely halted worldwide on the grounds that it may lead to plagues.

Rodent to pet to human
The double jump from rodent to pet to human is unlikely, especially considering the strong immune systems that cats and dogs have. It is better to have the pet kill/ eat/ reduce the numbers of rodents than to leave the rodents around to infect humans.   

A campaign against varmint hunting? 
Everyone around the world should know how this contributes to disease. 

Rat dogs in action
They don’t normally draw blood from the rats. Instead, they grab the rodent by the middle (away from both infectious openings) and instantly shake vigorously. It is hard to say what exactly is going on without slow-motion, but this motion probably sloshes the brain of the rodent causing instant disorientation and anesthesia. And once the dog gets going, it develops this towel snap motion that breaks the rodent’s neck. Also, clearly rat dogs were bred by people to kill rats as pest control, not food.  And the dogs that did not consume much blood, or end-fluids out-survived the ones that killed by biting.  Rat dog clips are quite a thing to watch.

Animal walls
What if we walled all the human communities worldwide? What if we put a 6-foot block or precast concrete wall around all the world’s communities. This separates all the wild animals and crawling insects from the city. What if we put a 10-foot flying insect fence/screen above our 6-foot animal wall? This fence is maybe chain link panels, with standardized bug screening panels that clip in. The screening is regularly sprayed with incecticide. As most flying bugs stay close to the ground, most land on the screen and die soon after.
1/ All insects can be more or less permanently eradicated inside the zone with a single application of pesticides.
2/ Due to the ring of animals on pyrethroids, and the screening, perhaps 98% of outside mosquitos will not be able to make it into the community.
3/ There are no mice or snake bites, or insects, or road kill.
4/ Six-foot cinder block wall (on 2-foot footings) costs about $120/ lineal foot, or ~$650,000/mile. Then we add maybe $350,000 for fencing and screening/ mile. (So a 20-mile x 20-mile fenced area might have a one time cost of $80-million for a city of say 3 million to share. That is a one time cost to build of $28 per person.
5/ Given the per person cost of building a wall like this, they might be 3 or 4 stories tall in many cities, so they are more effective at keeping the flying bugs out. 
6/ If we spray this area with insecticide once, then we have 400 square miles of land where we can grow foods without any additional pesticides. And maybe this pesticide breaks down months before human use of the land.
7/ If all agricultural output and all the grazing fields have pesticide traces, then all the animals around the human communities will be poisonous to mosquitos.

Separating from the animals
I bet we eventually realize 3-things about disease:
1/ Most diseases come from direct or indirect human contact with animals. 
2/ Most late life disease comes from attenuated pathogen infections decades earlier
3/ People should be staying away from wild animals, and never butchering them, or getting their blood in their mouth or eyes.

Illness monitoring
We all should have this illness reporting app on our phones. Got a fever, headache, sore throat, runny nose, etc.? Report it. Then the “CDC” can have this zoomable heat map of the world for the various symptoms. This is for more subtle symptoms, and it is a lot faster than waiting for people to go to a clinic. And maybe the system underweights people who complain a lot, and overweights those who don’t. But here is where we can see outbreaks of flu-like disease. And if they are a village, then we can take action and contain the village rapidly.  Also, for reasons related to information accuracy and hypochondria, only healthcare people are allowed to see this.  

All are Russian roulette for mankind
It is Russian roulette for mankind to eat many species of wild animal, or uncooked jerky, or meat, as well as keeping wild animals as pets.

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River animals and infectious disease
Think of the mammals living in runoff water contaminated with the feces, and corpses of other animals.  These must already have a high resistance to disease. Which muck rooter is going to survive best?… The one that carries lots of diseases to plague predators and competitor animals, or the one that doesn’t carry any disease? Here is why so many diseases come from, or via pigs. Here is why all the world’s hog populations should be separated, and why pig farmers should be quarantine before going to a community.

The stink of pig manure 
Is pungent odor of the pig pen like the distinct smell of mice?  Is it an infectious animal saying “I dare you” to eat my kind? The pigs also perhaps roll in their manure as a 2nd line of defense, another line of germ warfare for predators.

China and pigs
The Chinese character for the word FAMILY is essentially a pig under a roof. And even today, about 20% of Chinese pigs come from small holdings where the pig lives in the same building as the humans. The old Chinese way is that the pigs lives in the crawl space under the house. It is these small pigs-in-the-house families that are thought by many to be the world’s main source of swine flu epidemics. So this practice must be stopped. 

Wiping out swine flu
Mandatory pig-farm separation and quarantine might add a tiny bit to the price of pork. But it will greatly curb the many swine flu varieties and the late life diseases they cause.  So let’s change the rules of pig farming worldwide so these farms can’t spread and disperse pig diseases. 

New international rules of pig factories
Pig farming minus the human diseases
1) No hogs may be kept in the same building that people live in or work in.  We want our pig populations fully isolated from each other, from other animals, and from humanity. Then pig meat will be clean for mankind and good to eat.
2) There should be burdensome licensing process that make it unprofitable for people to keep less than say 1,000 pigs. And this should be so for the entire world. 
3) All pig factories must be a safe, and odor-free distance from all communities. 
4) All pig factories must be 100% sealed with regard to contact with land animals, bats, birds and even flying and walking insects. If there are any windows or skylights, they must be both netted and screened.
5)  As few people as possible should come in contact with live pigs.  We should push all hog faming worldwide into robotic factory farms that have mandatory entry and exit quarantines for the few on-site workers. There are robots that drive the pigs along for their meals, exercise, and a robotic “car-wash. When the pigs are out of their sleeping bowls, their bowl is washed out, and the waste sent down the drain by an overhead robot on overhead rails. So there is no mud or filth in the pig’s life. It is a place of skylights and indoor laps on concrete. 
6)  This is a big part of how we “cure the common cold” and eliminate most pig-borne colds and flus. It is also how we eliminate a great many attenuated, late life diseases that “colds and flus” tend to give rise to.
7) These rules of pig farming need to be enforced world wide. 
8) All the feral hog populations need to be considered vermin and either relocated to islands or exterminated.
9) Now, in the wake of COVID, it is the best time to call for these global sanitation measures regarding pigs. 

Bats and pigs
If we get serious about eliminating vectors, we probably should keep bats and pigs totally apart. It is not hard to imagine diseases cycling through one network into the other and back again. 

How much do bats 
accelerate time for pathogens?
2-fold? 20-fold? 200-fold?  Doubtless it depends on the pathogen and bats. But it would appear to be a 5 or 50 acceleration.  

Bat diseases & Metcalfe’s law
Metcalfe’s law restated for biology says that:  Evolutionary speed = population squared. So linear increases to the breeding population: 2X, 3X, 4X, 5X, etc. have an exponential effect on evolutionary speed 4X, 9X, 16X, 25X, etc. 

So if a hypothetical Coronavirus is living in 11 equal sized animal populations connected only by bats, removing the bats will cut evolutionary speed for the Coronavirus by 11-squared, or 121-fold. In other words, getting rid of the bats will cut the speed of evolution and adaptation for that Coronavirus by over 99%. 

Metcalfe’s law and evolution
Metcalfe’s law (posited by George Gilder) was intended for computer networks, but it also applies to the adaptive speed of biological breeding networks. Metcalfe’s law states basically that a network’s “value” equal to the square of the number of nodes the network has.  With biological networks it might read: The adaptation rate of a breeding network is an exponent (a square) of the breeding population.

So when two equal sized breeding networks are combined, evolution doesn’t just happen 2X as fast, it happens 4X as fast.  And when we divide a breeding network into two equally sized populations, evolution happens 4X slower. 

Now if we eliminate bats from the COVID system, we might divide that family into 20 different populations that seldom interact. From here we imagine that eliminating cave bats might cut the adaptive speed of many  diseases like those of the Coronavirus family by 20×20 = 400, or 99.75%.

The Bracken cave
This cave in central Texas is home to 20 million Mexican free-tailed bats [Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana (Molossidae)].  On one hand it can be called “the largest warm-blooded non-human vertebrate colony in the world”, and on the other hand it can be called “the hub of the world’s largest network for evolving fresh and super-virulent bat vectored zoonotic pathogens”.

Immunologically, we are fighting an evolutionary war with maybe a dozen, or a couple dozen bat vectored diseases. If we find that we must keep the bats, then we might close the largest caves and drive the bats into nearby “bat-coops” man-made apartments that can be slowly spread over a great area a few meters a day. Thus the largest caves are “broken up” into smaller disease breeding networks. This presuming the bats don’t fly between coops too much. 

Here otherwise, we have a massive evolutionary network and one that is working towards counter-attenuating mammal diseases and making them much more virulent. Also, if we are going to do any intervention, we would be wise to start with the biggest bat metropolises because this is where most of the counter-attenuating evolution is occurring. This is where evolutionary time is running fastest.

Bats might not be important
In that particular ecosystem
1/ What seeds do bats spread that birds do not?  (Capture some birds and bats and keep them and feed them until they empty out. Then let them go. Who is passing what seeds?) 
2/ Do bats really make that much of a difference in the insect populations? We will conduct a test. We will eliminate the bats from a test area and see how much insect populations rise.
3/ What plants are completely dependent on bats for pollination? Are there any? For all the rest that are not completely dependent on bats will adapt. Besides symbiots routinely go extinct and plants can deal with it.

How to slash bat disease
without killing all the bats

1/ Break up the large caves.
2/ Use two-part poison in live bait animals to only kill the vampire bats and remove these 3 species from the wild. Dark goats on even days, light goats on odd days.
3/ Regularly test bat populations and cull the diseased.

Bats feed in 8 different ways
1/ Fruit eaters.
2/ Flower feeders.
3/ Flying insect insectivores.
4/ Ground insectivores.
5/ Vertebrate carnivores.
6/ Fish eaters.
7/ Blood feeders. 
8/ Omnivores.

How many human diseases does each type of feeder carry on average? Which type of bats is most problematic?

Bats are running so fast  
There are articles that talk about how bat run a fever when they fly.  And some lines above there is an article that says that they have a body temperature of up to 108°F (42.1°C) So bats may not need much of an immune system. They might be simply outrunning most pathogens. Also bats seem to have evolved to help their pathogens. So bats may have a weak and atrophied immune response. It would be interesting to compare antibody reactions in bats vs. other mammals, this especially with respect to cancer immune response.

Bats don’t get cancer much
1/ Perhaps it is that their metabolism and immune system protects them from the pathogens that normally attenuate into late life cancer.
2/ Perhaps it is that their immune system can be more sensitive to cancer because it doesn’t have many other threats.
3/ We should study how bat immune systems suppress cancer.

Bat network functions
1/ Counter-attenuate powerful mammal pathogens to protect the bats from predators like cats, raccoons, foxes, and skunks.  
2/ Rapidly spread diseases between and among mammal species. This is another form of counter-attenuation.

The bats at the center of the huddle
1/ Lets use super-accurate infrared thermometers to monitor the body temperatures of the bats in the huddles. Are there a few super-hot infected bats in the centers of the huddles that feel good to be next to? Are all the bats the same temperature? Are the bats the the edge colder?
2/ What is the temperature of the cave rock and the temperature inside the bat huddle? We sneak in and glue electronic thermometers to where the bats huddle.
3/ Maybe we will use micro-drones or slow telescoping arm robots to spray the heads of bats with some paint or numbers track the bats with regard to who stays at the center of the huddle.
4/ Maybe the bats with the highest fevers are some sort of nexus bats.  We might expect there to be super-spreaders in the bat society. Perhaps we should view these as the “bat leaders” in a world where leadership is strength through pathogenic virulence.
5/ Or maybe it is simply that the sickest bats go in the center where it is warmest.

Heterogeneity in bat immune systems
Nature should favor Heterogeneity here, so we might expect that bats have the most varied immune systems. 

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A dog’s sense of smell
The canine sense of smell seems to have primarily evolved to track prey animals by their scents. But there were also certainly evolutionary pressures for the dogs to tell one disease or health condition from another, helping the dogs to:
1/ Avoid infections that might sicken them.
2/ Discern the truly weak from the somewhat weak. Thus the canines became symbiots — by culling the unfit, rather than being indiscriminate predators. Thus more predation could occur and canine populations could increase with the same energy inputs on the part of the dogs. 

Dogs learn negative associations 
with illness smells very fast
Let’s fill a district with lots of pre-diabetics mixed in with healthy people. Many people bring their dogs here each day for a while to see if the dog takes to the training. Everyone in this community takes out a piece of dog food for each dog that comes near, and the dogs are all hungry at this time of day and the strangers and the owners all use the same brand of dog food. But the dog is only given food from normal people. From the pre-diabetics and diabetics, the dog gets a bark collar shock and no food. After a short while, these dogs will run from people who are pre-diabetic.
1/ We can do this with schizophrenia and other diseases where we are clueless about their etiology.  
2/ Finding asymptomatic people that most schizophrenia dogs take for schizophrenic might help us understand the disease better.
3/ A corps of detector dogs will be the easiest and best method of early detection in many diseases.
4/ We can train thousands of dogs at a time to do this, for almost no money, and on an informal basis.

Asymptomatic COVID
Why have no symptoms at all? Why not a tiny viral load and more shedding?  It is may be because dogs and other animals can then smell the COVID and learn to avoid it. 

Train dogs to detect COVID
…and you’ve got it made.

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That cold may give you cancer in 30-years
There are a great many late-life diseases that seem to  come from pathogens that merely sickened us decades earlier.

Is high blood pressure from a pathogen?
If a pathogen elevates blood pressure up, the individual becomes more stressed and aggressive and likely to attack and infect other animals with the blood disease. It is rather like how Rabies makes dogs “mad”.  But with high blood pressure, this goes on for many years. So pathogens definitely would have benefitted from causing high blood pressure.  And many people do feel anxious and irritable when they become ill.  

COVID & high blood pressure
The COVID virus enters the body through the ACE2 receptors that regulate blood pressure. And high blood pressure does help blood pathogens spread. So high blood pressure looks like it might be from an infectious agent like COVID.  We should figure out which viruses attach here, or to the ACE1 receptors, because there’s a reasonable chance that one or more of these pathogens are the main source of late life high blood pressure.

Also, when we consider the way that blood pathogens hide behind arterial plaque, it is not hard to imagine that they also similarly hide inertly within our cells. Perhaps this is related to why people with high blood pressure commonly die of COVID. Perhaps the other old infection re-surfaces due to the presence of its cousin COVID. Then there is a race among the two related pathogens that often kills the patient. (its just conjecture.) Also, perhaps some creatures that die of old age have multiple pathogens re-surfacing at once. When this is the case, there might be a sudden acceleration towards death as multiple pathogens do a sort of “tragedy of the commons” thing with their host.

Perhaps COVID will cause another epidemic of high blood pressure in decades to come.  If so, it is probably now causing something of an epidemic of high blood pressure.  Considering how easy this is to study, we should be looking at blood pressure records to see if COVID patients have a higher blood pressure this year than other groups. 

COVID mortality by BP graph
It is widely known that high blood pressure greatly increases COVID mortality. A little statistical granularity is easy to put together, and it might be very useful. On the X axis we have the last recorded BP prior to the COVID infection. <120/80, <130/90, <140/100, <150/110, <160/120, <170/130. And on the Y axis we have the mortality from COVID. There are two super-imposed graphs, one for systolic and the other for diastolic BP.

Clotting diseases of late life
COVID definitely causes clotting issues. When it eventually attenuates, it might cause clotting much later, perhaps decades later in life.  So here we imagine a route for a delayed onset clotting disease dispersed/ spread by a viral infection much earlier in life.  Another way to look at it is that many young people that had mild COVID symptoms today, will in their old age suffer severe symptoms from COVID. 

COVID and those with high blood pressure
According to the CDC, half of COVID hospitalizations are people with high blood pressure. Perhaps a different pathogen caused that high blood pressure. Now a second coronavirus infection is causing even more damage, fatal damage.

COVID & stroke
COVID definitely attacks the inside of blood vessels, and this produces strokes in some patients. Perhaps some elder strokes are caused by similar blood viruses — viruses that have attenuated to the point where they are only causing aneurisms and strokes decades later.

Viruses & cancer
The way viruses damage the genetic material of cells is known to be a big source of cellular malfunctions. All that viral gene splicing produces errors, and frequently the same errors, the same sorts of cancer.  So we should expect that today’s viruses will tend to cause cancers in later decades.

Harmless bug, or late onset fatal
Sometimes a “harmless” cold in our youth will kill us 30 years later. Sometimes it is a virus introducing a mutation that will much later develop into cancer, or perhaps the infection will cause heart disease, or vascular disease, or stroke. 

Detective diseases
The pathogens that strike quickly are easy to see. The attenuated late life pathogens are much harder to recognize.

The ubiquity of dog bites
Each year, 800,000 Americans seek medical care for a dog bite. These people are at risk of rabies, pasteurella, staph, strep, and capnocytophaga. Surely there are other detective diseases that dogs tend to carry, and that these affect many people.

What polyps, aneurism, and stroke are
A localized and superficial pathogen infections or other irritant causes localized inflammation. The inflammation translates into the inner layers of cells growing faster than the outer layers. In the gut, this causes polyps. With blood vessels, the polyp is called an aneurism.

The fatty deposits that supposedly cause aneurisms
If aneurisms are caused by pathogens, then the arterial plaque deposits look like the pathogen armoring itself against the immune system with a shell of calcium and cholesterol from the blood. So the plaque doesn’t actually cause the aneurism per se. Instead it keeps the immune system out and allows the pathogen to thrive at that site. Then this local thriving causes the polyp. True “bulb” polyps are apparently even better at keeping the blood and immune system out. Then the pathogen can reactivate, and the immune system simply can’t reach it.

Bats connect periodontal & vascular disease
The blood pathogen migrates to the bat’s teeth and makes them bleed. So in bats, we see a symbiot. But when the blood pathogen gets into another animal with a slower metabolism, it tends to settle down and attack what it comes to first: vascular linings. Here is where the pathogen gets a first toehold, perhaps its biggest toehold — before the immune system can respond. Here is where the pathogen can change into slow vascular sabotage mode. First it builds up arterial plaque as a shield. Then it ramps up irritation of the blood vessel, eventually producing an aneurism pocket to use for hiding its offspring. Then the aneurism ruptures and kills the animal, 100% naturally of course, with not a hint of disease odor. 

Painful teeth are a symptom
Wherever we see infectious disease accompanied by painful teeth, we should note the symptom as this implicates blood bats in that infection. Also, the salivary glands and nearby periodontal areas are a good place to look for otherwise undetectable predator diseases.

Bats with bleeding gums
If nature favors bats that spread diseases best, then surely many vampire bats must have evolved to suffer from chronic oozing periodontal bleeding. So when the bat bites, its blood is mingling with the blood of the victim. Thus diseases can transit via the blood of the vampire bat directly into or out-of the blood of other animals. 

A close up on vampire bats biting victims
1/ We imagine infected bat fangs that are not needed for chewing because the bat is wholly focused on blood drinking. These teeth are only needed for one bite in 24-hours, mostly. So these teeth don’t have to be very strong. So we imagine the bat’s tooth sockets as being perhaps spongy and chronically abscessed and full of infected blood. This starts oozing out when the bat bites and applies pressure to its teeth.
2/ When the bat’s infected and bleeding teeth bottom-out in skin of the victim, the bat keeps biting. Thus the bat’s blood is pressed out of the tooth socket and directly into into the wound of the victim.
3/ We imagine that the bat blood has evolved antibodies or some other means of coagulating its blood and bonding on contact with the victim’s open tissue. And this is probably accomplished by a bat symbiot microorganism. Also, perhaps this blood binding pathogen is the cause of the clotting issues that COVID and some other blood pathogens cause.
4/ The exact mechanics of vampire bat biting should be studied under high speed video.
5/ As the Vampire bat laps up the blood of its victim. this passes by the bat’s inflamed tooth socket which is depressurized and has cellular damage due to the bit a few moments earlier. So the bat’s tooth socket is absorbing fluids and prey blood from the bat’s mouth when it is feeding. Thus the bat’s bleeding tooth sockets give pathogens direct access to the bat’s bloodstream.
6/ A great many otherwise hard to spread diseases regularly flow into and out of the global bat disease network in this way.

Vampire bat teeth
The small fangs close together in the front are for thin skin. The longer teeth in the back are for thicker skins like cow hide. There are only a few teeth because vampire bats have chronically bleeding gums to facilitate disease transfer in both directions. The energy burden of chronically bleeding teeth is reduced by eliminating unnecessary teeth.

Perhaps we will realize that all bat species with missing teeth and chronically bleeding gums need to be culled because they are a key factor in transmitting many other diseases. 

We might first look for new bat pathogens around vampire bat teeth. Swab the upper and lower fang bases, pressing down onto the teeth to get fluid to come out as when the bat bites hard. Concentrate on bats with red gums.

Bats as creatures of chronic infections
Bats are already out-running pretty much all the mammalian diseases due to their fast metabolisms. If they are carrying an infection, it is probably a symbiot like the one in the always-deadly-pathogen in Komodo dragon saliva — a symbiot that the dragon lizards support and definitely benefit from. Bats are known to carry a great many such symbiotic pathogens that kill the animals they come in contact with, in various ways. 

Summoning the pathogenic demons
Bats with their small guts and high metabolisms can get desperately hungry after only one night. And at the same time, their immune systems are summoning “the demons”, the pathogens, by helping the pathogens to surface.

Chronic infection
1/ The mechanisms by which infections retreat to regroup and attack another day needs more research.
2/ What a thing it would be if we could trick raging viral infections into retreating, to come back another time.
3/ What a thing it would be if we could trick a retreated infection into coming back and exposing itself too early.

Why Vampire bats are particularly dangerous
1/They drink the blood of animals, and this mingles with the blood from their bleeding gums. Then they often drink each other’s blood, mingling blood, forming a blood mingling network. Then when the bite the next animal to draw blood, they mingle blood from their bleeding gums. So vampire bats create a blood-to-blood network for spreading hard to transmit blood diseases like HIV. In fact, HIV’s difficulty of transmission points in no other direction better than it points towards blood drinking bats.
2/ Most bat pathogens seem to start out in the bloody periodontal areas of vampire bats, where they don’t need to actually travel anywhere to infect other animals. Then they evolve to make the jump from costly bloody teeth, to nearby salivary ducts. Then they evolve to infect the sinus area, lungs, and feces.

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Zoonotic Isolation 
The cost of isolating the pigs, bats, insects and other vermin is a tiny fraction of the short term health benefits this will bring. And that is to say nothing about the later life health benefits.

Stop the infections — dummy
Reducing the number of lifetime pathogen infections is probably the biggest and easiest thing we can do to reduce late-life disease.

Teaching the immune system
Maybe this isn’t even necessary. Maybe we eventually realize that:
1/ Most old age diseases come from a few germ-warfare species like bats, pigs, and oversized rodents.
2/  People should avoid these animals when they have not been farmed properly. Also, people should not touch their fluids or uncooked meat with bare skin.
3/ There should be punishments for people who take risks with all mankind to taste some rare animal’s flesh… flesh that tastes a lot like other meats.

How pathogens accelerate aging
Many pathogens are never completely eliminated. These go on, each slowly killing cells, which get replaced more often than normal, thus the pathogens accelerate aging. 

Nervous system pathogens
These pathogens can slow down, but only to a point. And nerve tissue doesn’t really grow back. so this leads to degenerative diseases that effectively kill off a creatures nerve cells.

Herpes and Alzheimers
Herpes infects the nervous system. Herpes is also found in higher levels in the brains of people with advanced Alzheimer’s disease. It is perhaps one of many attenuated nerve diseases that cause peripheral nerve disease or Alzheimers.

Attenuated Rabies
The most common way that deadly pathogens attenuate is by down-clocking and killing in decades instead of days. So if we started with a Rabies-like disease that ate up the nervous system and produced madness in weeks and months: What would that look like if it attenuated to a decades time scale? It would look a lot like senile dementia, wouldn’t it?

Senile dementia / Alzheimers
Maybe this is 4 nervous system/brain pathogens that have all attenuated and produce vaguely similar mental decline symptoms via different mechanisms.

Peripheral nerve damage
This is when a nervous-system pathogen has evolved to kill peripheral nerve cells first, and to kill them slowly.  This is how the pathogen keeps its host alive the longest — the pathogen’s shedding/spreading/ dispersal platform. Once a pathogen starts playing Jenga with a host’s brain, it ruins the mind (Alzheimers) and the host dies soon after.

What is senile dementia
Look at it from a zoological standpoint to really understand what is going on. We have this “dry rot” of peripheral (or non-essential) nerve activity. This is a disease long attenuated to the point of symbiosis.

Connecting sleep apnea and Alzheimer’s
Sleep apnea might help spread the respiratory disease among huddled bats. The Alzheimers is the disease destroying nerve tissue as slow as possible so as to stay alive and infectious as long as possible. Eventually the Jenga tower collapses and the person becomes demented or dysfunctional from Alzheimers.  

Make the host feel bold
Recall the boldness of some city rodents when they are desperately hungry — then port it to flying bats. So there must commonly be an element of aggressiveness and boldness, a randomness to bat feeding at times. And this probably helps spread disease, as well as bring out the bat diseases. It also causes a randomness with regard to bites that is curiously similar to what we see in rabid animals, and perhaps some forms of mental illness, hyper-tension, and high blood pressure.

Better isolation from a few creatures
This is how to stop most disease.

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The two sorts of Super-spreader
Most epidemics will have a short “spike” in patients, followed by a long tailing-off. It is important to realize that both the short spike and the long tail have their own sort of super-spreader/ super-disperser. The super spreader of the short spike sheds more pathogen. The super-spreader of the long tail has a lingering infection that keeps the pathogen in the environment for a long time. Addressing both sorts of super-spreader are key to controlling a disease.

Viruses humidity & exercise
Dry air kills viruses faster, but it can also cause people to develop chapped airways, which makes them more susceptible. Humid environments sustain the virus longer but do not cause people to develop airway chaffing. The worst of both occurs when someone is:
A/ Getting winded and chapped in dry air, such as a run in Phoenix, or skiing in thin dry mountain air, and then…
B/ Going somewhere moist and crowded right afterwards.

Winter sports and lodges 
The ski resorts of Colorado, Utah, Idaho, and Bergamo were all COVID hotspots before they were shut down. Look at the lifestyle. Days are spent getting winded, internally chapped and superficially hypothermic in cold dry thin air. Then nights spent doing laps in a stuffy ski lodge bar with people from all over the world. 

What is cold and flu season?
1/ Is it from indoor air circulating less in winter? 
2/ Is it from people are getting chapped in dry winter air and then going into crowded places?
3/ Is it from a colder and lower energy winter-Earth stressing cave bats and causing them to share their diseases more?
4/ Is it from a lower immune response in colder cave bats?

More fever cameras
In Asia they have many more thermal video cameras in public buildings.  We should probably require these in the US at schools, airports, subway stations, and other crowded places. 

Coughing or a runny nose
Even if you know it is from allergies, you are supposed to wear a mask in public, just like in Asia.

High school biology
How much less reactive and less infectious are the various pathogens after they dry out for 10 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes? 

Quarantines help attenuate pathogens
Quarantines are not only a tool for halting outbreaks, they also accelerate attenuation through natural selection.  

Forced attenuation
Step-1: Find a few people infected with a super-mild version of the pathogen. 
Step-2: Infect 40 death row inmates with this version.  
Steps-3 on:  We find the mildest cases and repeat step-2. Eventually we have an attenuated version of the pathogen which we use to infect people. This is something that we should have started doing with COVID in January of 2020. So some months later, people could have opted for controlled infection by an attenuated version of COVID.  

Ambient UV
If mid-day sunlight kills half of pathogens in a couple minutes, then even reflected and ambient UV probably creates an untenable habitat for those micro-organisms. 
Perhaps we can actually smell/sense this lack of micro-organisms in brighter places, vs dim places. 

Survivors caring for the sick
There should be multiplied pay for all who recover and care for the infectious sick. This and relaxed rules of professional licensing.

Hot air high oxygen ventilation
People don’t burn their lungs in 45° weather, maybe oxygen-rich hot moist air ventilation will harmlessly slow some respiratory infections. I imagine these CPAP-like machines that output air hot respiration air at a very precise temperature and humidity and high oxygen level for the purposes of treating the membranes of our airways. And maybe they add a mild anti-viral that is well tolerated and slows viral pathogens down.

Ridiculous Coronavirus names
Let’s stop using 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1 for Coronavirus names. Instead let’s reduce our mental overhead, and call them as Corona-1 to Corona-7.  So Corona-1 to Corona-4 are common cold viruses, Corona-5 is SARS, Corona-6 is MERS, and Corona-7 is COVID.

Avoid unproductive coughing
We should teach kids not to cough except when it brings something up, as this damages the cilia, and delicate airway tissues.

Liquor vapor cough suppressant hack
When I don’t have a cough suppressant, or can’t wait for it to take effect, I use inhaled liquor vapors to anesthetize my lungs. I put a teaspoon of hard liquor on my tongue, tilt my head a bit forward of level. Then almost totally close my mouth and inhale very slowly so as to bubble the air through the alcohol. This draws thick anesthetic alcohol vapors into the lungs.  I repeat a couple times until the urge to cough passes. Then I spit out the alcohol.  

Making viruses deadly to study them
This is a dumb idea. It seems to mostly be a bad excuse for developing bio-weapons. The risk of a superbug getting out is extreme. The reward seems almost far fetched. People should never be allowed to make pathogens more virulent. It should be outlawed by international convention. 

Immune system elasticity and age
Immune systems seem to start out strong like so many of the body’s systems. Then, as people age, the immune system become “in-elastic” as with the other organs and tissues.  Perhaps some old people die of infections because their immune system have recently become too “inelastic” to deal with a major challenge.

Everyone must have masks at home
What if we all had to keep masks at home? Then we could announce that everyone must wear masks in public due to the arrival of some nasty flu.

Weak links, strong links and
Small world networks
The names “local-links”, “leap-links” and, “Leap-networks” convey much more sense of the subject than the current vague terms. These terms are much more user-friendly for this important area of science. They will lower mental overhead, and make everyone smarter. 

Pathogen, auto-immune, or other
As a rule of thumb, if a disease is more common towards the equator, it looks infectious.  And if a disease is more common at higher latitudes where people “hibernate”, it look auto-immune. Also, females tend towards less activity than males, so they tend to get auto-immune problems more. If a disease is more common among females it also looks auto-immune.

MS is both more common at higher latitudes and more common among women.  It seems to be a hibernation disease, a condition caused by a synergy between winter break and awful stay-at-home weather.  The kids emerge from some weeks of hibernation and exert themselves without enough warm-up and they get auto-immune syndrome as a result. 

Auto-immune diseases that strike women more
Females seem to have stronger immune responses. And this is thought to be due to the bearing of offspring. But maybe it is about activity level in youth. Also, the connection between low levels of Vitamin D and MS could be explained by how girls tend to stay home more than boys when it is cold.  Which of the foregoing diseases are both more common in higher latitudes and among people who “hibernated” or otherwise got torpid for a long time in their youth? 

Headball
Perhaps one day some doctors will sign a petition saying:  “We ask that the rules of soccer be changed so that it is not allowed to hit the ball with one’s head. We think that this is probably harmful, and it is so easy to simply change the rules of the game and make it truly football, instead of a doublespeak brain-damage version of football.” 

Motorcycles
1:7 hwy. deaths
1:700 hwy. miles
The highway deaths are NTSB numbers. The miles are my guess, but probably an underestimate for the US… considering night, seasons, and precipitation.  This meme is very hard to argue with. I think it is powerful enough to drive public policy against motorcycles. For why do we allow people to endanger themselves so extremely using the public highway system? 

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Coronavirus main starting points 
1/ It lands in the lungs and causes lung problems first.
2/ It is swallowed and causes gut problems first.
3/ It lands in the nose and causes nasal problems & loss of smell first.
There seems to be 3 main avenues for the infection to enter the body. Is one of these avenues less deadly than the others? Is there another route that is less deadly than these three.

COVID is a fresh cold virus
It looks like CV-5 to CV-7 are fresh new common cold viruses like CV-1 to CV-4 — diseases that probably killed large numbers of people over the centuries. 

China’s #1 Bio-weapons lab 
Wuhan is located at the biggest fork on Asia’s biggest river. Wuhan is one of China’s main rail, river and road transport hubs. This is an idiotic place for a bio-weapons lab. Is this: a) Stupidity, or b) An excuse?

The 7-headed COVID family
The highly successful COVID virus disease family has 7 varieties plaguing many species of genuine life.  

China statistics
China: 1,400,000,000 people, 4,635 COVID deaths.
USA 330,000,000 people, 188,000 deaths.
These are the numbers as of Sept 6, 2020. In China at the poor crowded epicenter of the COVID epidemic we have 1-in-302,050 people dead from COVID.  In the USA far from the crowded epicenter of the COVID epidemic, we have  1-in-1,755 people dead from COVID. 

302,050 ÷ 1,755 = 172, thus people in the rich and spread-out adversary nation at the other side of the world are 172  times more likely to die than in the poor crowded nation at the epicenter of the outbreak. 

China: 1,400,000,000 people, 85,122 COVID cases.
USA 330,000,000 people, 6,260,000 cases.
The COVID fire burns everywhere but in China and its slave colony North Korea. Maybe they are not under-reporting. Maybe their isolation tactics are not winning. Maybe a COVID vaccine was quietly added to their other immunizations. 

16,447 ÷ 53 = 310, thus people in the rich and spread-out adversary nation on the other side of the world are 310 times more likely to get COVID than at the poor crowded epicenter of the outbreak. 

Was China Immunized?
The COVID fire burns everywhere but in China and its slave colony North Korea. Maybe they are not under-reporting. Maybe their isolation tactics are not winning. Maybe the Chinese people were secretly immunized. 

Visitors from the PRC
Are PRC visitors significantly under-represented in American COVID patient stats?  If so, then China has had a vaccine all along.

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Diabetes and sugar disease
1/ Diabetes is 1/7 of healthcare spending.
2/ There are 34 million Americans with diabetes (10%).
3/ There are 88 million Americans that are pre-diabetic (27%).
See: the staggering cost of diabetes on diabetes.org

Diabetes is up 2-3 fold in 30-years
In the past 30 years, the number of cases of diabetes in the world is more than doubled to 366 million. In the Arab world the diabetes rate has nearly tripled. Given that 10% of Americans now have diabetes, and this results in immense public healthcare costs, perhaps we should tax the sugar content of the things we eat and drink.

Diabetes is from fructose
Fructose is metabolized by the liver and not the gut. When the liver metabolizes fructose, it is turned mostly into glucose, the bane of diabetics.  Older people commonly have damaged livers gone “fatty” from years of abuse drinking and eating fructose and other toxins. These livers become unable to function properly and are not able to break down fructose rapidly.  As a result, glucose trickles out into the bloodstream over many hours, and even over night. This results in a steady demand for insulin that seems to wear out one’s insulin producing cells, resulting in diabetes.  

Why me?
1/ Some people can perhaps metabolize 4-tons of fructose in their lifetime, while others can only handle half a ton before their insulin cells die.
2/ Some people binge on fructose and alcohol all day until they ruin their livers.

126 grams a day of sugar
This is 4.5oz, the average US sugar intake. 

Childhood diabetes
Many mothers seem to be under the impression that they should feed their babies fruit to relieve colic/constipation. Therefore many mothers give their babies a daily does of fruit — so much fruit (by body weight) that it has a laxative effect. 

Here the baby is given so much fructose, that its liver is overloaded and parasitic bacteria overgrow and eat the fructose instead. This leads to inflammation and fluid which softens the stool. So, yes, if you overload a baby’s liver with sugar at every meal, they will get loose stool, meaning liver overload and also perhaps their insulin system is being damaged.

Also, the reason why apples have such a famously great laxative effect for babies is that along with grapes, they have more fructose than other fruits.

The easiest thing for liver health
Don’t consume so much fructose or alcohol that you get farts, bloating or loose stool. These symptoms mean that you are overloading and damaging your liver by making it work at maximum output. The bloating itself is harmless. But the bloating is caused by nutrients that are not being metabolized, and that is a problem. These nutrients remain in the digestive tract for a while, and are consumed by bacteria which produce the gas.   

How to recognize “sugar bloating”
Do you wake up trim and then become bloated later in the day, all day?  Does this bloating not appear if you eat only meat and eggs?  This means you are consuming too much sugar and you are on the path to diabetes. 

Break-fast and diabetes
It sort of seems that one thing that is important for preventing diabetes is that you don’t break your daily fast, and that you only put sugars in your gut for part of each day — say lunch to dinner with no snacking at all between dinner and lunch.  Apparently thing thing that is important about breakfast (if you are pre-diabetic at least) is that you not eat it, or that you have no sugar at breakfast, only meats, oils and fats.

How much of the day do you fast?
Do you break your fast in the morning, with a sweet break•fast meal… or do you do the right thing and wait until mid-day to begin eating sugar. 

The most important meal of the day
Recall how people often say that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. What they mean that it is important that you not eat in the morning and BREAK YOUR FAST with a BREAK•FAST meal. Breakfast apparently IS the most important meal of the day. But it is apparently important that you not have it if you need to slow the onset of diabetes.  

Morning fasting
For pre-diabetics, lengthening the daily fast should give insulin producing cells much needed time to rest and heal.

The old dietary ways
Traditionally people had an evening meal and did not snack after this. In America this was around the time the father came home at maybe 6:00pm. Then traditionally, they had a breakfast of meat and fat and little sugar. So traditionally (when the world had much less of a problem with diabetes) people really didn’t have much sugar between say 7:00pm and noon the next day.

Harmfully rich diets
Maybe when the ancients spoke of rich diets, they weren’t talking so much about fats, but a high fructose diet of the sort fostered by the “natural” food movement. 

Why exercise helps with Diabetes
If pre-Diabetics exercise before they eat, this creates cellular demand, and a pre-existing deficit for sugar. Then they can tolerate more dietary sugar and still keep their insulin off. 

307,000 hours
Imagine a car that will wear out in 300,000 miles. Likewise tires will last approximately 60-75,000 miles.  But how many years is that? Well it all depends on how much you drive your car and how many sharp turns you take.  It is much the same with alcohol and sugar binges in humans.

Chemical machines with a fixed lifespan
Imagine a car that will wear out in 300,000 miles. Likewise tires will last approximately 60-75,000 miles.  But how many years is that? Well it all depends on how much you drive your car. How many sharp turns does it take to wear out a car’s tires? It is much the same with  alcohol and sugar binges in humans.

Don’t snack all day long
If you eat all day, then your insulin level is raised all day… And you only have maybe 300,000 hours in your lifetime. Or maybe it is 500,000 hours… or maybe only 80,000 hours.

Why sugar causes gain weight
Insulin is the hormone that tells your cells to eat. Snacking all day causes your body to release insulin all day. Thus all day long, your cells have their eat switch on.

Fructose and obesity
Insulin tells your muscles, fat, and liver cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream. It basically tells your cells to eat or don’t eat, in an on/off way. So let’s say your liver is damaged and is no longer able to metabolize fructose well. Then the liver starts getting these backlogs of un-metabolized fructose… and glucose trickles out of the liver for many hours, and the body handles this by turning on insulin levels for many hours. In effect, these people have their cellular eat switch turned on for more of the day and that is one reason why they gain weight. 

How Obesity & Diabetes are related
Step-1: Damage your liver, or just eat sugar all day so that your insulin cells are on all day. Do this for many years.
Step-2: Because your insulin is on all day, your cells are being told to eat all day, so they eat and get fat. And because they are being told to eat all day, you also get hungry all day.
Step-3: Because your insulin producing cells are on all day, they age faster and then wear out and stop producing insulin. Then you become diabetic.

Insulin stimulates appetite for several hours
Your blood sugar and insulin levels may be back to normal after 2 hours, but the insulin’s hunger effects on your cells lasts for some time more.  So it takes more than a couple hours for insulin’s hunger effect to subside.

Insulin cheating breakfast
Stop eating at 6pm. Consume nothing but water after 6pm. For breakfast, have only eggs, meat, oils, fats. No grains or sugar. 

Sugar is not a good thing
We can see from the way the body responds to even small sugar bumps that sugar a thing to be cleared from the bloodstream… a thing that our body can deal with in limited amounts. So are we wise to dump huge artificial volumes of sugar into our bodies?  

Least hungry in the morning?
If you find it is easiest to delay your first meal, this is because your insulin (and eat switch) are totally off. If you are trying to eat less, stretch out this morning period where you insulin is off. 

Why intermittent fasting works
It works because it takes hours for the insulin to wear off, and for your cells to stop trying to get more sugar. Then you are not “insulin hungry”.  This is why it is easier to stay slim when you don’t eat for part of the day.

High protein diets and weight loss
Maybe it isn’t the added protein, but the reduced sugar and insulin that curbs your appetite. 

Sub-insulin diet
This is where you exercise and eat no sugars, no alcohol, and limited carbohydrates. It is basically the classic low-carb diet, but as a way to slow the onset of diabetes, and even perhaps for some diabetics to live without injecting synthetic insulin.  

Keeping your hunger hormone off
If you want to keep your insulin off, exercise before eating and when you eat, get good and hungry, then don’t eat anything with sugar in it, (or with lots of carbohydrates which get converted to glucose by your body and can turn your insulin on). 

Diabetes and pubic awareness
There should be more public service messages that explain:
1/ How 10% of Americans have diabetes.
2/ How 27% of Americans are pre-diabetic. 
3/ How fructose is harmful.
4/ How binge drinking and sugar eating are leading to diabetes.

Chose always the right path, 
No matter how difficult
Habit will quickly make it agreeable.

High-school Alcohol & sugar poster
Be 30 when you’re 40,
—or—
Be 50 when you’re 40.

Alcohol and sugar binges
There are lots of drugs that people can easily tolerate as 90 doses a month — but if they take all 90 doses at once, they will overdose… right? Better you have 3 drinks a day than all 21 on Saturday nights. And surely the same goes for sugar binges. 

High fructose corn syrup
How hard would it be for congress to delete this public health nuisance? 

Food labeling
All potential toxins should be listed in grams or milligrams per kilo: fructose, sucrose, sodium chloride, sodium nitrate, caffein, other stimulants, alcohol, artificial sweeteners. And this includes both natural and artificial toxins.

Sugar taxation
Maybe we should tax sugars so that sugar is no longer the cheapest part of the snack. Soon sugar may be the most expensive part, and commercial baking will be much about subtracting as much sugar as tolerable — instead of adding as much sugar as tolerable.

Free diabetes testing
The public would be financially wise to offer nearly free urine testing for changes in serum amylase (or lipase/proenzyme) levels. Then we can tell people that they need to cut back on sugar or there is a 50/50 chance they will develop diabetes. Then we can save billions on the fraction of people who change their lifestyle in advance. 

The insulin cartel
1/ Insulin prices are up 10-fold in the past 25-years.
2/ The “big-3” insulin makers have grown fantastically rich exploiting their aged cartel, and no longer deserve intellectual property protection. 
3/ Synthetic insulin is almost 40-years old and for this reason, no longer deserves intellectual property protection.

Undigested fructose
The presence of excess fructose in the gut causes bacterial overgrowth and inflammation. In the top of the gut this can cause acid reflux. In the bottom half it causes too much fluid and diarrheal illness as a result. It also causes gas and bloating.

SISOP = sugar induced symbiot overgrowth pathologies
Even in healthy people, there is always a time-lag before the insulin takes full effect and cause the body to mop up all the extra sugar. In pre-diabetics who eat all day long and trickle out glucose into the night, this time-lag grows and becomes more of the day, and these people have too much sugar for more of the day.

This causes our symbiots to get too much sugar and they tend to overgrow and cause problems.  Now, because there are lots of people eating just about all the sugar their body can handle—all day long—there seems to be many people suffering from excess sugar pathologies like: 
1/ Chronic acid reflux from sugar distorted esophageal flora.
2/ Chronic diarrhea from sugar distorted colon flora.
3/ Sinusitis from sugary and bacterially nutritious nasal mucus. 
4/ Tinea and fungal infections of the skin more covered in a bit more nutritious sugar.
5/ Vaginosis and prostatitis from sugary and nutritious fluids. Also excess sugar seems to lower vaginal PH, which reduces sperm lifespans and fertility.

A sugar and fertility experiment
Many people comment on how a rich life reduced fertility. Is there a sugar component to this? Here is an easy, cheap experiment. Locate 500 couples that are trying to conceive. Does a totally sugar-free keto-diet in both (for the 2-weeks prior) increase their fertility rate for their age?

Sugar & infections
1/ Feeding the pathogens we are trying to eliminate isn’t really important when the treatment works immediately. It becomes more of an issue when the treatments take a long time to work. Here with these long-term treatments that only barely work, the relationship between the pathogen’s reproduction rate and host’s elimination rate is a critical factor. So even if not eating sugar only slows the pathogen’s growth rate by 3%, it is a big deal for long term treatments. 
2/ It should be common knowledge that “Sugar Fasting”  is good to do when you notice an infection, as it can help the body eliminate many infections by itself. Not eating any sugar for a few days should be in everyone’s home remedy toolbox. 
3/ Our bodies are full of genuinely helpful symbiots, quasi-symbiots and pathogens hiding in stealth mode.  Sugar fasting often helps our bodies to regain control of many sorts of “symbiot uprising”.

Sugar, symbiots, and aging
When the natural symbiots in our bodies overgrow, they start acting more like pathogens, and less like symbiots. In other words, they tend to harm our cells more. Thus they cause our cells to age faster. Thus they cause more inflammation. 

So consuming too much sugar causes symbiot overgrowth, which leads to inflammation and faster aging of cells.  And regeneration is limited for every living creature. bio-mechanisms can only heal so many times before the recovered tissue starts to become scarred, distorted, and aged.

Fatty liver & low hormones
The liver makes all the Cholesterol you need… but this is of course, only when it’s healthy.  Unhealthy “fatty” livers frequently do not make enough cholesterol. Then the body can’t produce enough hormones: Because Cholesterol is an essential ingredient in the production of dozens of hormones including Serotonin, Dopamine, Estrogens, Progesterones, “Testosterones”, and Insulin. 

So, if a hormone replacement patient has a damaged liver, and the patient has low overall Cholesterol levels, and the condition is not urgent, perhaps it is wise to first try increasing dietary cholesterol to see if the low hormone levels are actually a Cholesterol nutrient issue. 

So people who are regularly depressed (due to low Serotonin), or have low sex hormones, or a low dopamine level might want try eating a couple eggs a day to see if these conditions are from Cholesterol malnutrition and will go away with with something as simple as having eggs with breakfast.

Harming insulin cells from both ends
On one hand, our damaged livers harm our insulin producing cells by trickling-out glucose all day — that is to say, glucose metabolized from the fructose we eat. 
On the other hand, our damaged livers don’t produce enough Cholesterol, and this starves our insulin producing cells of something they need to function. 

Cholesterol is a nutrient like vitamin D
Fructose is a toxin, like alcohol.

Reduced liver function
Aged livers malfunction is several common ways. However, reduced rates of fructose metabolism and cholesterol production are very common. We have talked a lot about the former, but the latter is important to diabetics because this cholesterol is essential to making insulin.

What happens when pre-diabetics eat 2-eggs a day, in the morning, maybe 3-to-5-hours before the insulin is needed for their big lunch meal?  Does having a bit more cholesterol improve insulin levels? Does this slow the onset of diabetes? Does it help if the insulin cells are well nourished when they must come on for the day? How much lead time is optimal? It would be such an easy thing to study.

All day sugar / all-day cholesterol?
If all-day sugar causes all-day insulin, does all-day insulin levels cause all-day cholesterol? It is pretty easy to imagine that the cholesterol builds up in the arteries if it is on all day long. Maybe it washes off at night.

Cholesterol and Calcium
These are the two main ingredients in arterial plaque. Are we absolutely sure that cholesterol alone is the cause? Maybe both are needed.  Or maybe both are layered up by a third thing, namely some bat-borne blood virus trying to build an immune system shield for itself. 

Breeding the fructose down
Most fruit is a mix of fructose and glucose. We can probably breed high glucose, low fructose fruits. It shouldn’t be too difficult to do because both sugars are being produced by nearly all fruit genomes. The glucose is for when the plant wants to be entirely beneficial to it’s symbiot, and the fructose is for when the plant wants to give slow poison the animals that eat too much its fruit. 

The fructose makes the greediest fruit-eaters fat, slow, and torpid, like a sofa-whale. Then they get eaten and then their carcass often becomes valuable fertilizer for the plant. This is similar to how many fruiting plants evolved to support fruit that naturally ferments. This leads to drunken, and later severely hung-over prey animals… impaired to the point they often become fertilizer. 

Don’t eat too much of one thing
Evolution always greatly rewarded plants that got animals to eat a little bit of their fruit and seeds. And seed dispersal by animals is the whole reason why fruit is offered around plant seeds.  But evolution also tended to punish plants that let themselves be taken advantage of by their symbiots. So many fruits and seeds are fine in small amounts, but if you live off of them it will be bad for your health over the long term. 

Tobacco, alcohol, fructose, & sunlight
These are the four big toxins in our lives today, perhaps in order of how much harm they do to us.

Fatty liver is a bad term
1/ The term is an anesthetic that hides what a bad thing it is to have a fatty liver. For so many health problems follow from a HIGH MILEAGE LIVER, which is a better term.  
2/ The fact that so many people have a fatty liver in the modern world also is an anesthetic.  This should not be considered normal, but a huge unrecognized problem.

Informing people of liver damage
As a matter of public health in helping people to take care of themselves, a fatty liver diagnoses from the ultrasound techs should come with some numbers:
1/ The percentage of liver damage estimated.
2/ Then estimated life expectancy given the percent of liver damage, given clean living from now on.
3/ The estimated life expectancy given the percentage of liver damage assuming more of the same with regard to alcohol, fructose, and drug consumption.
4/ All this is automated and all the tech does is enter a two digit number estimating liver damage in percent.

Pain meds and alcohol
There should to be more public awareness of the liver damage caused by taking pain meds with alcohol.

Your gut valve needs time to heal
If you burn the valve between your esophagus and your stomach (you lower esophageal sphincter valve) with stomach acid, it may take 3 to 10 days to heal and grow leakproof again, if things have not degenerated too far already.

Acid reflux is degenerative
Another thing that needs more public awareness is how acid reflux is degenerative. People should know that every time they burn their lower esophageal sphincter valve, it grows back more scarred. Then in a great many people it stops working and acid leaks when they lie down.

Acid reflux may start with baby feeding
Babies should be fed left breast, right breast. This is so that the baby’s acid valve is at the top of its stomach when its belly is full. Babies should fall asleep on the right breast, and be kept on their left side, and a slope for some time so the milk can exit their esophagus.